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四川成人高考高起點英語語法歸納大全

來源:www.cn365cn.com    時間:2021-01-20 13:54:53    作者:四川成人高考

四川成人高考高起點英語語法歸納大全

第1:人稱代詞

第2:物主代詞

第3:反身代詞

第4:不定代詞

  人稱代詞

  一、主格人稱代詞有I, we, you, he, she, they, it,主格人稱代詞就是在句中充當主語和表語的代詞

  二、賓格人稱代詞有me, us, you, him, her, them, it,賓格人稱代詞即在句中充當賓語(含介詞賓語)的代詞

  三、同步練習

  1) Archibald Motley’s artistic talent [A] was apparent [B] by the time him [C] enrolled [D] in high school.

  2) Legends often contain an element [A] of fact, but [B] sometimes it is [C] totally [D] untrue.

  3) Unlike [A] road vehicles, Hovercrafts have no physical [B] contact with the surface over which [C] them [D] travel.

  4) Let you and I [A] promise that we shall always [B] dare to do [C] what is [D] right.

  5) Most of we [A] know that conductors direct their orchestras with a baton, but how many [B] are aware that [C] they also direct with their faces, hands [D] , and shoulders?

  四、例題解析

  1) C錯。him是賓格,而此處卻需要作主語的人稱代詞,故應將him改為主格he.

  2) C錯。 改為they are.C處代替的是“Legends”而不是“an element”。

  3) D錯。them也是賓格,應改用主格they,作定語從句中的主語,謂語為travel.

  4) A錯。 改為me.

  5) A錯。改為賓格us,因為前面是介詞of,us作其賓語,故用賓格。

  物主代詞

  一、表示人的物主代詞用my, our, your, his, her和their,指無生命的東西用its(但指國家時一般用she或her),它們在句中作定語

  二、名詞型物主代詞能作表語(It’s theirs)、主語(Mine is there)、賓語(I don’t like hers),與of連用可以作定語(the food of theirs)。

  三、同步練習

  1) A scientist bases its [A] work on hypotheses that [B] have been checked [C] through careful [D] experimentation.

  2) Crude rubber is an [A] elastic(有彈性的) solid with a specific gravity of 0.911 and a refractive index(折射率) of 1.591, though it [B] composition varies with different latexes(橡漿) as well as [C] with the way it is prepared [D] at the plantation.

  3) Manufacturers [A] of consumer goods [B] often change [C] the styles of them [D] products.

  四、例題解析

  1) A錯。 改為his.

  2) B錯。 改為its.

  3) D錯。 改為their.

  反身代詞

  一、反身代詞有myself, ourselves, yourselves, himself, herself, themselves, itself.主語與賓語為同一人或物時,要用反身代詞(否則就不能用反身代詞),反身代詞也可放在名詞或代詞(主格)后面(也可放在句尾)起強調作用

  1) All [A] the scouts(童子軍) got theirselves [B] ready for the [C] long camping trip by spending their weekends living [D] in the open.

  2) Various [A] animals have shells that keep themselves [B] from growing beyond [C] a certain [D] size.

  3) Benjamin Banneker’s aptitude [A] in mathematics [B] and knowledge of astronomy enabled himself [C] to predict the solar [D] eclipse of 1789.

  4) The president announced that he himself [A] would act upon [B] the evidence as presented [C] to himself [D] by the congressional committee.

  5) Garrett [A] Morgan died in Cleveland, Ohio, the city that [A] had awarded himself [B] a gold medal for his devotion [C] to public [D] safety.

  6) Plants rid them [A] of excess water through [B] transpiration, the evaporation of extra [C] moisture from their [D] leaves.

  7) When Jonathan went [A] to Spain with his [B] sister, he bought a [C] leather coat for her and another for him [D] .

  二、例題解析

  1) B錯。 改為themselves.

  2) B錯。B處明顯指代animals,而它前面的主語that卻指代shells,也就是說“that”和“themselves”指的不是同一事物。由于主語與賓語不是同一物,故不能用反身代詞,應改為賓格them.

  3) C錯。本句的主語為aptitude,而非Benjamin Banneker(在這里它作aptitude的定語),而C處的代詞卻指上文提到的人名“Benjamin Banneker”,由于主語與賓語并非指同一人,故不能用反身代詞,應改用賓格him.

  4) D錯。 改為to him.動詞“presented”的(邏輯)主語是“evidence”,而不是A處的“he,”所以D“himself”處與C處“presented”的主語“evidence”不一致,所以不能用反身代詞。

  5) B錯。 改為him.同上。

  6) A錯。此處的them指主語plants,rid是及物動詞,由于主語與賓語指同一物,故應使用反身代詞themselves.

  7) D錯。 改為for himself.

  不定代詞

  、“every”(每一個)只作為定語使用,即必須在其后加上單數可數名詞構成名詞短語,它不可與everyone(每一個)混淆。 everyone相當于名詞,它不可修飾其他名詞,只作主語或賓語

  1) Every [A] knows that hospitals are institutions where the sick are treated, but how many [B] realize that they were once [C] homes for the indigent and the friendless [D] ?

  2) Everyone [A] child in the United States must [B] receive [C] some form of educational instruction [D] .

  例題解析

  1) A錯。every不可單獨充當句子成分,應在其后加上person或改為everyone.

  2) A錯。改為Every,修飾child.

  二、“much”和“many”分別修飾不可數名詞和可數名詞,可作為代詞(如much of)和形容詞使用

  3) Food seasoning plays an important [A] role in the cooking [B] customs of much [C] cultures in [D] the world.

  4) The general sales tax has been [A] a major source of income for state governments, much [B] of which derive more than half [C] of their budgets from [D] it.

  5) Data received from [A] two spacecraft indicate that there is many evidence [B] that huge thunderstorms are now occurring [C] around the equator [D] of the planet Saturn.

  例題解析

  3) C錯。應改為of many,因為被修飾詞cultures為可數名詞,故其修飾語應用many,而much要修飾不可數名詞。

  4) B錯。應改用many,因此處所指代的是可數名詞governments(復數),many在本句中為代詞,作非限定性定語從句的主語。

  5) B錯。應改為much evidence,因為evidence(證據,跡象)為不可數名詞,故應用much來修飾。

  三、 “some”和“any”是表示不定數量的代詞,相當于漢語的“一些”,作定語可修飾可數名詞復數或不可數名詞,其中some(包括它的合成詞something,someone, somebody)多用于肯定句,而any(包括它的合成詞anything, anyone, anybody)則用于疑問句和否定句中,其中any在否定句中相當于漢語中的“任何”;形容詞修飾something, someone, somebody, anything, anyone, anybody, nothing, nobody時,形容詞要放在這些詞的后邊

  6) Historians [A] have never reached some general [B] agreement about [C] the precise causes of the [D] Civil War in the United States.

  例題解析

  6) B錯。應為any general,因為本句為否定句(否定副詞never),應該用any,此處表示“(沒有達成過) 任何共識”。

  、“another”和“other”分別表示“另外的一個”(an+other)和“另外的”“其余的”意思,可以用作定語修飾名詞或單獨作主語與賓語,其中前者只用來修飾或指代單數可數名詞,后者修飾單復數名詞和不可數名詞,二者不能相互混淆

  7) Lizards lack [A] the builtin body temperature control [B] many another [C] creatures possess [D] .

  8) Some bacterium are extremely [A] harmful, but anothers [B] are regularly [C] used in producing cheeses, crackers, and many other foods [D] .

  9) Like [A] most another [B] art forms, the Greek tragedy had [C] its origins in religious [D] observances.

  例題解析

  7) C錯。應改用other來修飾可數復數名詞creatures.本句是一個省略了關系代詞that(或which)的定語從句,control為名詞作主句中及物動詞(謂語)lack的賓語,同時又受其后面定語從句的修飾。

  8) B錯。 改為others.

  9) B錯。 改為other.

  、one與other “one”作為代詞代替前面提到的人或物,它前邊加the; “other”作代詞修飾復數名詞。 “one…another”表示“一個…另一個”的意思,或表示多個(三者以上)之中的“另一個”,“又一個”; “one…the other”表示兩者之中剩下的“另一個,又一個”

  10) I’d like to [A] buy a coat similar [B] to one [C] you are wearing [D] .

  11) Though [A] Art Tatum was totally blind in one eye and had only slight [B] vision in another [C] , he became [D] an internationally renowned jazz musician.

  例題解析

  10) C錯。改為to the one.

  11) C錯。應用the other,因為此處表示兩者之中的另一個,Art Tatum為人的名字,他只有兩只眼睛,故提到“另一只”時應用the other.

  、 “few”和“little”兩者分別為“many”和“much”的反義詞,表示“少,很少”的意思,有否定含義,即等于“幾乎沒有”,如若表示肯定的含義,則應在little和few前加不定冠詞“a”,即變為“a few”和“a little”

  12) Because they are generally [A] taken simply to obtain a recognizable [B] and relatively clear [C] image, most nonprefessional photographs demand few [D] equipment.

  例題解析

  12) D錯。應改用little,因為equipment為不可數名詞,故其修飾語應用little,few后面只接可數復數名詞。

  七、 “a great deal (of)” (大量)只作為限定語修飾不可數名詞或在句中指代不可數名詞作主語或賓語

  13) of giftgiving, barter, buying and selling goes on among the Narvjos.

  [A] A great deal [B] A great many [C] Much greater [D] Many

  例題解析

  13) A為正確答案??瞻缀鬄椴豢蓴得~“giftgiving, barter, buying”,“[B] A great amny”和“[D] Many”修飾可數名詞,而“[C] Much greater”本身是形容詞,空檔后不應有“of”, 所以填“[A] A great deal of”。

  八、“nothing but”表示“只不過,就是,只有”

  He is nothing but a singer. 他只不過是個唱歌的。

  Nothing but a miracle can save us. 只有奇跡才能救我們。

  九、“anything but” 表示“根本不,并不”

  She is anything but beautiful. 她并不美。

  John is anything but a liar. 約翰決不是個騙子。

  十、“something of” 表示“略有”

  He has seen something of life. 他略有閱歷。

  I’m something of a cook. 我略懂烹飪。

  (試比較)

  He is not much of a scholar. 他算不上個很好(高明)的學者。

  十一、“none other than”表示“就是”

  The new arrival was none other than the President. 剛到的那人就是總統本人。

  我們要注意none other than 與 other than 的區別,后者表示“與……不同”

  I do not wish him other than he is. 我不希望他改變現狀。

  The truth is quite other than what we think. 事實與我們所想的不一樣。

  十二、“none”有時可作副詞,表示“一點也不”

  We did the work none too well. 我們活干得一點也不好。

  十三、nowhere可用以成語:be nowhere一無所得,一事無成;get nowhere一事無成,nowhere near離……很遠。

  十四、有些不定代詞同時也是形容詞,或有其他的含義

  He is all attention, and she is all eyes. 他十分留意,她也注意力集中。

  Everybody who is anybody (somebody) at all will be at the dance.

  [句中的“anybody(somebody)”在此當“大人物,重要人物”講。]

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